Responsive Design

My files

  • Responsive design
  • Flexible layouts
    • Percentages
      • Use percentages for layout widths
      • How to do percentages inside of percentages
    • rem
      • Used instead of pixels for font-size, border, as well as margin and padding in some cases
      • Target ÷ context = result (24px ÷ 16px = 1.5rem)
        • Context is the font size of the html element (16px).
        • Put your math in a comment next to the result.
      • Continue using em for line-height
  • Borders in flexible layouts
    • CSS for divs with borders: box-sizing: border-box;
    • Counts padding and border as part of width
  • Media queries
    • Will mostly use ones based on width (max-width or min-width)
    • Other options available
    • General viewport widths
      • Newest iPhones – 375-414px
      • Older iPhones – 320px
      • iPads – 1024px by 768px
      • Other tablets – 1280px by 800px
      • Others
    • Web inspector’s responsive design mode
    • Using multiple media queries
      • Largest to smallest
      • Multiple values
  • Flexible images
    • max-width: 100%; will work most of the time
    • background-size: cover; (example) and background-size: contain; (example)

Example media query

@media screen and (max-width: 414px) {
        /* alternate CSS here */
}

Images, Layout, and Typography

My files

  • Images
    • Create a folder in your project for images
    • Image editing basics
      • Save the largest version of an image you can find
        • Header and content images should be at least as big as your container
        • Background images should be tiling or very large (1,600 pixels wide or larger)
      • Basic editing and exporting
      • Rename your images – lowercase, no spaces, etc.
      • Image formats
        • JPG – photographs
        • PNG – images with transparency
    • Background images
      • CSS – ch. 16
        • background-image
        • background-repeat
        • background-attachment
        • background-position
        • background shorthand property
      • Useful tiling backgrounds at Subtle Patterns
      • High resolution images at Unsplash
    • Header images in CSS
    • Images in content
      • Centering
      • Floating
        • float property with margin and padding as needed
  • Typography
  • Layout – pp. 370-376
    • Columns with float
    • The clearing div
  • Adding comments to your code
    • HTML – <!-- comment -->
    • CSS – /* comment */

HTML and CSS Basics – Day 2

My files

  • CSS
    • Reset stylesheet
    • File structure – ch. 10
      • style.css
      • Link to in HTML – <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css">
      • Import reset stylesheet – @import url("reset.css");
      • Rule structure – see bottom of post
    • Properties
      • Color – ch. 11
      • Text – ch. 12
        • font-family
        • font-size (in pixels)
        • line-height (in ems)
        • font-weight (bold)
        • font-style (italic)
        • text-decoration (underline)
        • text-align
  • Layout and the CSS box model – see bottom of post
    • divp. 187
    • Styling – ch. 13
      • width
      • padding
      • border
      • margin
      • Centering your div
        • margin: 0 auto;
    • Classes and IDs – pp. 183-184, 238
      • Spans with classes
        • <span class="..."></span>
  • Images
    • Naming
    • Resizing
    • Centering
      • display: block;
      • margin: 0 auto;
    • Including captions – see this post for more information
  • Miscellaneous
    • Links and :hover pseudo class
    • Styling lists – pp. 333-336
      • list-style-type
    • Styling horizontal rules
      • border
    • Viewing source code in a browser
    • Using Coda reference books (also, HTML and CSS versions on the web)

CSS rule structure

selector {
    property: value;
}

CSS box model