Responsive Design

My files

  • Responsive design
  • Flexible layouts
    • Percentages
      • Use percentages for layout widths
      • How to do percentages inside of percentages
    • rem
      • Used instead of pixels for font-size, border, as well as margin and padding in some cases
      • Target ÷ context = result (24px ÷ 16px = 1.5rem)
        • Context is the font size of the html element (16px).
        • Put your math in a comment next to the result.
      • Continue using em for line-height
  • Borders in flexible layouts
    • CSS for divs with borders: box-sizing: border-box;
    • Counts padding and border as part of width
  • Media queries
    • Will mostly use ones based on width (max-width or min-width)
    • Other options available
    • General viewport widths
      • Newest iPhones – 375-414px
      • Older iPhones – 320px
      • iPads – 1024px by 768px
      • Other tablets – 1280px by 800px
      • Others
    • Web inspector’s responsive design mode
    • Using multiple media queries
      • Largest to smallest
      • Multiple values
  • Flexible images
    • max-width: 100%; will work most of the time
    • background-size: cover; (example) and background-size: contain; (example)

Example media query

@media screen and (max-width: 414px) {
        /* alternate CSS here */
}

Images, Layout, and Typography

My files

  • Images
    • Create a folder in your project for images
    • Image editing basics
      • Save the largest version of an image you can find
        • Header and content images should be at least as big as your container
        • Background images should be tiling or very large (1,600 pixels wide or larger)
      • Basic editing and exporting
      • Rename your images – lowercase, no spaces, etc.
      • Image formats
        • JPG – photographs
        • PNG – images with transparency
    • Background images
      • CSS – ch. 16
        • background-image
        • background-repeat
        • background-attachment
        • background-position
        • background shorthand property
      • Useful tiling backgrounds at Subtle Patterns
      • High resolution images at Unsplash
    • Header images in CSS
    • Images in content
      • Centering
      • Floating
        • float property with margin and padding as needed
  • Typography
  • Layout – pp. 370-376
    • Columns with float
    • The clearing div
  • Adding comments to your code
    • HTML – <!-- comment -->
    • CSS – /* comment */

Images with and without captions

To include an image in your HTML file, use the following code:

<img alt="Description of picture" src="image.jpg">

If you’d like your image to have a caption, use a figure element:

<figure>
    <img alt="Description of picture" src="image.jpg">
    <figcaption>Caption for picture</figcaption>
</figure>

You may wish to add a class to your figure element for easy styling:

<figure class="example">
    <img alt="Description of picture" src="image.jpg">
    <figcaption>Caption for picture</figcaption>
</figure>

You can then style your image and caption using .example, .example img, and .example figcaption in your stylesheet.